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牡丹与美术

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2017-05-26
中国牡丹,花要硕大,花姿端丽,色彩鲜艳,气味芬芳,有“国色天香”之誉。自古以来,被作为吉祥、幸福、繁荣昌盛的象征,备受历代文人墨客的宠爱。尤其是古代画家善于的题材。

早在南北朝时期,就有人开始用画笔表现牡丹的芳姿了。据刘宾客的《嘉话录》一书中就有“北齐(公元550—557)杨平华有画牡丹”的记载。唐代(公元614—907)牡丹实名于天下,画牡丹者日盛。据董道《广川画跋》记载:唐代画家“边鸾(画植物名家)所画牡丹,妙得生意,不失润泽”。五代南唐时(公元923—936)徐熙画的《牡丹图》,堪称当时花鸟画中的一绝,他创造了叠色渍染法,落墨较重,薄施丹粉,用笔清秀,意趣生动,使牡丹内在美得以充分的再现。明代(1368—1644)画家徐渭用泼墨法画牡丹,是当时的创举。他所作水墨写意,泼辣豪放,笔墨简练,一扫前人呆板造作之气,使其所画牡丹更具强烈表现力。清代(公元1644—1911年)画牡丹的画家很多,成就最大的应推崇被奉被为清初花鸟画的正宗恽寿平了,他的“牡丹”润秀清雅,自成一体,不有“恽”之称。如他的《牡丹册页》图绘折枝牡丹,婀娜多姿,花貌如玉,却又被一枝弯曲的叶片,遮住半边,大有“犹抱琵琶半遮面”之态,王 曾在册页上题赞道:“画牡丹最易近俗,南田此本,妍精骨,真能追上北宋徐熙诸人,不仅凌跨明代花卉名家陈(道复)陆(治)已也”。他的设骨写生法,后人争相仿效。再如恽寿平的另一幅题为《国香春霁》的牡丹图,整个画面,承宋代遗风,色调清新,工整秀美。图绘两块皱石,背后衬映着三枝牡丹,五朵初放和盛开的牡丹花,在轻风吹拂的碧叶中,跃然纸上,花粉红艳丽而不失淡雅,千瓣层层更显雍容富贵,不是真花却宛如天成。
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