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果树类病害:苹果黑点病

Miss Chen
2018-07-31
病害危害

20世纪90年代国内苹果上发现的一种新病害,该病主要在苹果果实皮孔部位形成浅层小黑点,影响苹果外观和经济价值。目前在少数地区有加重的趋势。寄主苹果、海棠和花红等果树。



 
病害症状

苹果黑点病主要为害果实,枝梢和叶片也可受害。

(1)枝干:产生圆形或近圆形褐色斑点,后期上面长出黑色小粒点。

(2)叶片:在叶面上产生圆形或近圆形褐色斑点,后期上面长出黑色小粒点。

5mm左右。病斑形状不规则,稍凹陷,果肉稍有苦味,周围有红色晕圈,与苹果痘斑病相似。病斑上长出的小黑点,为病菌的分生抱子座或菌丝结。在果实成熟期和贮藏期形成分生孢子器。

(3)果实:发病初期围绕皮孔,出现深褐色至黑褐色或墨绿色病斑,病斑大小不一,小的似针尖状,大的直径

适宜感病环境:

1、幼树的嫁接口附近,

2、地势低洼积水,土质瘠薄及管理粗放的小树、幼树及衰老树易发病,

3、偏施氮肥,树体生长过旺发病重,

4、果园杂草多而茂盛;整枝太轻,枝条过多通风透光差的发病重,

5、雨水多,光照少,高温高湿时发病重,

6、苹果品种以金冠、国光、富土等易感病品种易感病。

 
病害病原

子囊菌亚门真菌——苹果斑点小球壳菌Mycosphaerella pomi(Pass.)Waltonet Orton

无性世代为:: 苹果斑点柱抱霉印indrasporium pomi Books

苹果果斑茎点菌phoma pomi Pass.

病害发生规律

病菌在受害果及病落叶上越冬。翌春受害果腐烂,表面着生小黑点,即病菌子座,子囊壳产生孢子传播侵染。被害落叶在翌春也可产生很多孢子进行侵染为害。苹果感染盛朝在落花后10~30天,病斑在7月初开始出现,病害潜育期为40~50天。
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