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果树类虫害:苹果卷叶蛾

Miss Chen
2018-08-28
虫害分布

分布范围:国内分布较广,遍及东北、华北、华中、华东和西北等地区。

虫害危害

为害作物:苹果、梨、杏、沙果、山楂、柿等。

为害特点:幼虫卷结嫩叶,潜伏在其中取食叶肉。低龄幼虫食害嫩叶、新芽,稍大一些的幼虫卷叶或平叠叶片或贴叶果面,取食叶肉使之呈纱网状和孔洞,并啃食贴叶果的果皮,呈不规则形凹疤,多雨时常腐烂脱落。

虫害形态特征

成虫体长6~7毫米,翅展13~15毫米,青灰色。幼虫体长8~11毫米,污白色,头部和前胸背板暗棕黑色。

虫害发生规律

年发生2~3代。以2~3龄幼虫在顶梢卷叶团内结虫苞越冬。萌芽时幼虫出蛰卷嫩叶为害,常食顶芽生长点。6月上旬幼虫老熟,在卷叶内作茧化蛹, 6月中、下旬发蛾。成虫白天潜藏叶背,略有趋光性。卵多散产于有绒毛的叶片背面。幼虫孵出后吐丝缀叶作苞,藏身其中,探身苞外取食嫩叶。7月是第1代幼虫为害盛期,第2代幼虫于10月以后进入越冬期。
虫害防治方法

除利用松毛虫、赤眼卵蜂等天敌进行防治和利用成虫的趋化性和趋光性诱杀外,对顶梢卷叶蛾可在冬春修剪时彻底剪除受害梢,在越冬幼虫出蛰和各代卵□化盛期喷洒对硫磷或杀螟松。对小黄卷叶蛾、苹果大卷叶蛾和褐卷叶蛾可在早春刮除树干老皮、翘皮以消灭越冬幼虫,并在越冬幼虫出蛰盛期喷洒杀螟松或用敌敌畏、敌百虫药液封闭枝条剪口,以减少越冬虫源;在第 1代卵□化盛期和幼虫期喷洒敌百虫或辛硫磷。对黄斑卷叶蛾可通过清除园内杂草,以减少越冬虫源;在第1代和第2代卵□化盛期用药剂防治。

化学防治:尽量选择在低龄幼虫期防治。此时虫口密度小,危害小,且虫的抗药性相对较弱。防治时用45%丙溴辛硫磷(国光依它)1000倍液,或国光乙刻(20%氰戊菊酯)1500倍液+乐克(5.7%甲维盐)2000倍混合液,40%啶虫.毒(必治)1500-2000倍液喷杀幼虫,可连用1-2次,间隔7-10天。可轮换用药,以延缓抗性的产生。
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