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果树盆景怎样速成

Miss Chen
11-22
1、劈接:结合冬剪疏除的枝组选接穗,一般具有2~4个枝。砧木可选用嫁接未成活的或矮化砧2~3年以上的健壮砧。嫁接时间在树液流动前1月进行。其方法:保持砧木切口平滑,然后在中心位置劈开,劈口深度为3~4厘米。把接穗(枝组)下方两侧斜削成光滑的楔形,长2~3厘米,插入劈口,对准形成层,稍留白0.5厘米左右。再用塑料袋和绳自下而上包严扎紧(越紧越好),地养1年后上盆(也可直接上盆),注意栽时用土埋过接口保湿,不能晃动。

2、根接:时期在清明前后,即所嫁接的植株离皮为适期。要选健壮、抗逆性强的根砧。接穗用老粗的桩段或形好的枝组。其方法:用插皮舌接,根据具体情况可接2~4个根砧。未离皮的可采用劈接方法。
3、管理:嫁接成活后,不但要满足树体正常营养生长的需要,还要满足其生殖生长的需要,必须加强土、肥、水、光、修剪等几方面的管理:



①做好各个生长期的施肥工作,并且注意氮、磷、钾的比例。花前多施氮肥;花期、幼果期多施磷肥;果实膨大期多施液肥,结合叶面追肥增加磷、钾肥。

②花期、动果期防止过湿,连阴雨易造成生理落花落果;花芽分化期,秋季果熟期,水不宜多,应稍偏干。在果实膨大期连阴雨易造成落果和裂果,应防止。盆土过干、过湿都不宜。

③可通过对枝组开张角度和疏剪徒长枝、密生枝和无效枝等方法增强光照。

④及时进行夏季修剪,如摘心、抹芽、扭梢等手段,以免枝梢与果实竞争养分,促进其花芽分化。

⑤克服果树“大小年”现象。大年应在孕蕾期疏花,小年应多留花,并进行人工授粉等。
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